data ontology

A fragment can have more than one document written on it; a document can be comprised of more than one fragment.

manuscript structure

During this period, paper, parchment, and other writing materials were frequently reused. This practice often resulted in two entirely unrelated texts being written on the front (recto) and back (verso) of the same piece of paper, parchment, or other writing support. In our corpus, if the recto and verso are connected or if the verso is left blank, the document is assigned a single shelfmark, e.g. 'Ms.Heb.8333.99.' Conversely, when the recto and verso are unrelated, each side is given its own distinct shelfmark, e.g. 'Ms.Heb.8333.67recto' and 'Ms.Heb.8333.67verso'.

physical condition


genres of text

dating and calendar systems

IEDC documents use a range of calendar systems depending on the document’s use and provenance. Many documents are not explicitly dated. For those that are, the dates are included in each entry, both as given on the document and as converted to common era dating. You can also convert dates yourself using this calendar converter.

The following is a non-exhaustive list of the most common dating systems you will encounter in IEDC documents, as well as their relationship to common era dates.

Ardashīr I (r. 224–42). This dating is reflected in the reworked edition of the Bactrian Documents, following the argumentation of François de Blois. Months and days are either Bactrian, e.g. “month of Sabul” (BT I O), “month of Ab, day of Wahman” (BTI P), “the month Second New-year, the dayDin” (BTIQ dated 449 EBD), or Zoroastrian-influenced month names which appear from247 EBD onwards (BT I F dated 247 EBD mentions the month of Ardibehesht). François de Blois, “Du nouveau sur la chronologie bactrienne posthellénistique: l’ère de 223–4 ap. J.-C.”. Nicholas Sims-Williams. Bactrian Documents from Northern Afghanistan I: Legal and Economic Documents (Studies in the Khalili Collection vol. 3; Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum; pt. 2, vol. 6.). Rev. Ed. Oxford: The

Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions and Oxford University Press, 2012 [c2000, 2001].